The first experimental CNC system was developed from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1952 and has now gone through 46 years. The CNC system started from the original electronic tube type and experienced the following stages of development. Please read this article for details.
1. Development trend of CNC system
CNC system discrete transistor type,small-scale integrated circuit type, large-scale integrated circuit type, small computer type, ultra-large scale integrated circuit, microcomputer type. In the 1980s, the overall development trend was: CNC devices were developed from NC to CNC,32-bit CPU were widely used to form multi-microprocessor systems,system integration was improved, volume was reduced, and modular structure was adopted to facilitate cutting, expansion, and functional upgrades. To meet the needs of different types of CNC machine tools,drive devices to the direction of communication and digitization. CNC devices to the direction of artificial intelligence,the use of new automatic programming systems, enhanced communication functions.CNC system reliability continues to improve. In short, the numerical control machine tool technology is constantly developing, the function is more and more perfect, the use is more and more convenient, the reliability is getting higher and higher, and the performance price ratio is getting higher and higher. By 1990, the world's professional CNC system manufacturers had an annual output of about 130,000 sets of CNC systems.
2. The new generation CNC system adopts an open architecture
Since the 1990s, due to the rapid development of computer technology, the CNC machine tool technology has been promoted to be updated faster. Many CNC system manufacturers in the world use PC's rich software and hardware resources to develop a new generation of CNC systems with open architecture. The open architecture makes the CNC system more versatile, flexible, adaptable and expandable, and has been greatly developed in the direction of intelligence and networking. In recent years, many countries have researched and developed such systems, such as the "next generation workstation/machine controller architecture" NGC jointly led by the American Center for Scientific Manufacturing (NCMS) and the Air Force, and the European Union's "open architecture in automation systems." "OSACA, Japan's OSEC program, etc. The development research results have been applied. For example, Cincinnati-Milacron has adopted the open architecture A2100 system in its production center, CNC milling machine and CNC lathe since 1995. The open architecture can use a large number of advanced technologies of general-purpose microcomputers, such as multimedia technology, to realize automatic voice-activated programming and automatic scanning of graphics scanning. The numerical control system continues to develop toward high integration, and more transistors can be integrated on each chip, making the system smaller, more compact and miniaturized. Reliability is greatly improved.
Utilize the advantages of multiple CPU to achieve automatic troubleshooting; enhance communication functions and improve incoming and networking capabilities. The new generation of CNC system with open architecture, its hardware, software and bus specifications are open to the outside world. Because there are sufficient software and hardware resources available, it not only makes the system integration of CNC system manufacturers and users powerful. Support, but also bring great convenience to the user's secondary development, promote the development and wide application of multi-grade and multi-variety of CNC system, which can be upgraded or tailored to form various grades of CNC system, and can be extended The numerical control system that constitutes different types of CNC machine tools greatly shortens the development and production cycle. This CNC system can be upgraded with the CPU upgrade, and the structure does not have to be changed.
3. The control performance of the new generation CNC system is greatly improved.
The numerical control system is developing intelligently in control performance. With the penetration and development of artificial intelligence in the computer field, the numerical control system introduces the control mechanism of adaptive control, fuzzy system and neural network, which not only has automatic programming, feed forward control, fuzzy control, learning control, adaptive control, process parameters. Automatic generation, 3D tool compensation, motion parameter dynamic compensation and other functions, and the human-machine interface is extremely friendly, and has a fault diagnosis expert system to make the self-diagnosis and fault monitoring functions more perfect. The servo system's intelligent spindle AC drive and intelligent feed servos automatically recognize the load and automatically optimize the adjustment parameters. The linear motor drive system has been put into practical use.
In short, the technical level of the new generation of numerical control system has been greatly improved, which has promoted the development of high-precision, high-speed and high-flexibility of CNC machine tools, and the level of flexible automatic machining technology has been continuously improved.
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